This report is going to talk about the case of the Niger Delta and its intrinsic oil exploitation as well as gas flaring, which cause damages to the local population and impacts the environment. Moreover, the Nigerian government mismanages its revenues in wasting the gas flared that could be an important financial resource for the country. This complex situation arose due to the presence of different actors who definitely lack ethics. Indeed, oil companies have huge financial interests in this region and the government is unable to find compromises between corruption and common interests. There is no doubt that several reasons impact the region and its ethical problems that are also linked to economic, political, social, and environmental issues.
[...] Firstly, the oil companies, which are present in the Niger Delta, overexploit and take advantage of enormous quantities of natural resources at low costs. We can't deny that making profits is their only goal. Thus, they totally ignore the moral side of their activities and the ethical issues linked to this, that they cause in the region. Companies such as Shell or Agip deny the locals their rights and do not respect their communicated ethics. This can be prejudicial for their image and legitimacy. [...]
[...] Moreover, they argue that they participate in the local economy by giving jobs to local people, assuming that their motive of giving employment to a few people is better than nothing and guarantees their rights to do business there. There are no doubts that the best solution is always in the consensus. Thus, stopping the oil exploitation in the Niger Delta is not necessarily the best alternative. Oil companies also bring numerous jobs to the region, and participate in the local economy, though the wages provided are very low. [...]
[...] Moreover, Nigeria is one of the poorest countries of western Africa even if its GDP is quite high due to the income from oil exploitation. Yet, the gas from oil exploitation could be a judicious way to set up new productive infrastructures and entail a possible constant growth for the country. Despite this opportunity, the Nigerian government is not willing to build gas recuperation systems. Another factor is that this gas flaring in the region causes a lot of damage to the local population, that suffers from respiratory or skin diseases because of it. [...]
[...] These events in the Niger Delta can affect end consumers; for example they may refuse to put oil from a particular company in their cars because they do not respect ethics and morals. Even within the oil industry, setting-up partnerships and joint- ventures with other big actors like BP could be difficult because other oil companies will be afraid to work with Shell or Agip if they are not seen as ethical companies by customers. This could impact BP's brand image if they do so. [...]
[...] Recommendations We recommend the Nigerian government: To set up a law for reducing and limiting gas flaring according to the Kyoto protocol; To increase the level of taxation for oil companies exploiting their natural resources; To install partitioning between politics, business and army; To invest in gas recycling systems providing energy; To act in the interest of its citizen; To implant its own national oil company instead of foreign ones; To ban corruption and bribery; We recommend the oil companies present in the Niger Delta: To voluntarily reduce their oil and gas exploitations; To reduce the emission of greenhouse gas emissions; To better pay their employees; To help investing in new gas recycling infrastructures; We recommend the local population: To moderate their conflicts among themselves; To alert the African opinion; To find compromises with the local authorities; We recommend international organizations or governments: To lobby and put pressure on the oil industry; To incite the Nigerian government taking reasonable decisions; To alert medias and public opinions; To set up treaties and international agreements; Conclusion To conclude, the Niger Delta is a perfect example that illustrates the power of foreign multinational firms that exploit resources without taking into consideration ethics. [...]
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