Even if Taylor's main researches date from the end of the XIXth century, these still exert an important influence on nowadays' industries, such as the car industry. Indeed, Taylor's works remain an important basis in the organizational structure of many fields of activities. Obviously, many points have been reviewed and bettered in order to adapt to the technological changes which marked the XXth and XXIth centuries. However these researches remain crucial to understand how the various organisational models evolved. Moreover, Taylor's theories inspired many ideas, namely Ford's. These are the reasons why we have chosen to deal with Taylor in this report, and to deepen our knowledge on this researcher. We shall first discuss his career and background to introduce him as a great engineer. Then we will throw light on the economical context in which he evolved and what inspired his ideas, and explain his organisational theory. After that, we will study the results related to the application of his researches. Finally, we will underline the main drawbacks of his theory, and give our personal point of view.
[...] Indeed, the USA entered war in 1917 and only then resorted to scientific management to quickly increase the production of weapons. To have a better insight on Taylor's works, light will now be thrown on the situation and conditions leading to the development of his theories. Situation and conditions leading to the development of the model Both the general context and Taylor's personal experience help us to understand the reasons why this engineer worked on industrial efficiency General context At the end of the XIXth century, workers lacked qualification and most of them were unskilled. [...]
[...] And further to show that the fundamental principles of scientific management are applicable to all kinds of human activities, from our simplest individual acts to the work of our great corporations, which call for the most elaborate cooperation. And, briefly, through a series of illustrations, to convince the reader that whenever these principles are correctly applied, results must follow which are truly astounding. Now, we will show the four principles which characterize the Taylor's system of management: Firstly, it belongs to the members of Management, to develop execution's techniques of each element of work, the workmen having only to improve the tools and the working conditions. [...]
[...] Gradually, the initial conditions of the end of 19th century having pushed Taylor to develop its method of Scientific Management were erased: The lack of education is not any more a sufficient reason to separate execution and the preparation of the work. The relationships between managers and executants changed. There is a restoration of a certain balance. The social climate is not any more the same one. There is a phenomenon of rejection, against the dehumanization of work. However, we can distinguish the successors of Taylor around the world. [...]
[...] So the general context at the end of the XIXth century and Taylor's personal experience can explain the reasons why scientific management was developed. Now we will analyse the main contributions of Taylor's works. The mechanism, structure and workings of the theory We will begin this part with a quotation of The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) by Frederick Winslow Taylor. This quotation shows the thought of Taylor, and what is crucial for him in its theory. “This paper has been written: First. [...]
[...] No more wasting of the men workforce Taylor thought that the men workforce was wasted by spontaneous gestures not adapted to an optimal performance, inefficient tasks, and clumsiness. First of all, the researcher wanted the workshops to be adapted to the workers, in order to diminish their tiredness fair day's work”). Then, by finding the good methods, the workers would be able to work with the same rhythm for several years without extra tiredness, and without too sustained efforts. As a consequence, he wanted to determine the appropriate shape of the tools used in order to gain time and efficiency: the best way”. [...]
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