Indus civilization is considered as the most mysterious civilizations of the world because until now researchers have failed to provide a plausible explanation of the symbols and language found written on various tablets. Considered as an urban civilization far superior to that of Sumer civilization, Indus Valley civilization and its disappearance is considered as one of the biggest archaeological challenges still faced by the researchers.Discovered in first part of the last century, the major archaeological work on Indus Valley civilization started taking placing during the decade of 1921- 1931 however, after the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan- where this site is situated, have indicated towards new evidence of the extent of this civilization. However, what is so critical about this civilization is the fact that most of the evidence gathered from its major sites such as Mohan Jo Daro, Harappa and other sites indicate nothing about what this civilization actually was and as such a major part of Indian history is still undecipherable and unknown to the modern world.(Fitzsimons,1970).
[...] Such diversified nature of archaeological evidence, therefore indicate that the either the civilization was spread over all the area with its major center located at the Mohan Jo Daro where King seemed to rule the entire country or being the dominant trade center within the neighborhood, the civilization of Indus greatly influenced its neighboring civilizations and gradually converted them to adopt its cultural values and other traits. There are many theories which attempt to contemplate on the reasons for the destruction of this civilization. [...]
[...] Mohan Jo Daro was also probably the trading hub of this civilization because it was formed right at the banks of Indus River and various seals found from this city are considered as the accounting records of trading taking place in this city. It is also therefore argued that the town planning or the urbanization of the major cities of this civilization including Mohan Jo Daro was largely a result of the trade oriented society of this civilization. Apart from trading, archaeologists have also found seeds of wheat and other agriculture seeds from the site of Mohan Jo Daro indicating that this society not only relied on trade but was also an agri-based society. [...]
[...] Many believe that the rise of this civilization and its annexed civilizations prevailing in various other parts of India was mainly due to the development of sea trade. Being situated at the banks of Indus River, this civilization was connected with other civilizations through sea because Indus River meets Arabian Sea at the present day Karachi of Pakistan. There is credible evidence that Chinese traders tend to come to India through sea and connect with the traders from Indus civilization and mainly traded pearls and other valuable items which were used to be found in Southern Part of India. (Maloney, 1970). [...]
[...] What is also evident is the fact that this civilization had put in place an effective tax collection system because a part of the agriculture produce was given to public granaries. This system seems to be perfect although this civilization advocated private property and enterprise and most of the inhabitants were either traders or the farmers raising their own agriculture output for sell as well as their private consumption besides contributing towards public granaries. Harappa Harappa, the so called twin city of Mohan Jo Daro also believed to possess the same characteristics because there is striking similarity in the way both cities were planned. [...]
[...] The theory of destruction of this civilization through floods is also plausible because of the fact that this civilization flourished at the banks of river Indus and it is hypothesized that great floods in the river might have caused the large scale destruction. The next section will discuss Indus Valley civilizations and its different sites such as Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Dholavira, Kot Diji, Rehman Dheri, Looking at aspects of civilization/state societies, trade architecture, economy, settlements, craft etc. Different sites of Indus Civilization Indus Civilization believed to be flourished largely under local influence and its characteristics are hardly similar to any other civilization of its time however, through its trade and commerce it seems to be connected with the external world. [...]
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