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Essays in modern history 91 to 120

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19 Jan 2009
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European diplomacy: from the Bismarckian System and the Realpolitik to the pre-WW1 Alliances and the Weltpolitik

Essay - 5 pages - Modern history

From 1872 to 1907, a series of alliances are formed among European major powers. The international system formed by German chancellor Bismarck in order to ensure Germany's hegemony within Europe and prevent a possible French revenge disappears in 1890. Then, the European powers gather in two...

16 Jan 2009
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The failure of the Arusha Process in the Rwandese Crisis

Essay - 11 pages - Modern history

The 1994 Rwandese genocide happened in the following of a civil war which had begun more than three years earlier. In October 1990, the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), which gathered the Rwandese who were refugees in south Uganda (mostly since the decolonization period at the end of the 1960s),...

16 Jan 2009
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Truman and the post-war years

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

During and due to the War economy, the American factories had been very active. They bustled with triple shifts. The US had eventually absorbed one of the most severe attacks launched on its values. However the role of the family and women within, it highlighted the uncertainties facing the...

16 Jan 2009
doc

The American Revolution 1776-1783

Essay - 5 pages - Modern history

The American Revolution is one of the biggest events that durably affected the American population: first this conflict was the only one that ever took place on their territory, and secondly it opposed American people themselves in a merciless civil war. Before 1775, the American territory was a...

16 Jan 2009
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The Cecchini report - 20 years later

Essay - 4 pages - Modern history

With the Maastricht Treaty, in 1992, the European Community will now be a single market composed of twelve countries, with no more barriers between them. This change was of course studied and analyzed before coming into force. The European Commission, in 1986, mandated Mr Cecchini to make an...

16 Jan 2009
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Lebanon's fragility: The case of the Civil War 1975-1990

Essay - 7 pages - Modern history

The states of the Arab East have always experienced challenging political and social issues mainly inherited from their creation by Great Powers after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Indeed, the Western organizational model of the time, i.e. nation-state, poorly fitted the regional realities....

16 Jan 2009
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Hungarian history and culture

Essay - 3 pages - Modern history

The Carpathian basin is composed by the Carpathians, the Alps ands the Dinaric Alps. This geographical situation makes present-day Hungary as a singular country, a land with melting-pot cultures from different ages. Finally, the Magyars has sealed the curse when the prince Árpád has conquered the...

16 Jan 2009
doc

The Japanese expansionism during the first part of the Showa Era: 1926-1945

Essay - 7 pages - Modern history

In 1926, Hirohito, the grandson of the Meiji emperor, reached the throne and chose Showa ("enlightened Peace") as the official name of his reign. However, the General Tanaka Giichi became Prime Minister in 1927, confirming the dominating role of the army. The fast industrialization of the country...

16 Jan 2009
doc

The colonial legacy of the Herero Genocide in Namibia

Essay - 10 pages - Modern history

What is the relationship between Namibia at the dawn of the XXth century, Mein Kampf and UNO? The Hereros establish the link; this community of Southwest Africa who, in spite of it, took part in the ideological elaboration of the genocides century. It is not a very common history which, for...

16 Jan 2009
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The Bhopal Disaster: A tragedy in the Indian Industrial history

Essay - 18 pages - Modern history

The Bhopal disaster happened in the early hours of the morning of December 3rd, 1984. It is one of the most terrible industrial disaster or maybe even the most terrible disaster that ever happened. It took place in Bhopal which is the capital city of an Indian state called Madhya Pradesh. The...

16 Jan 2009
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The Cold war and the Cuban missile crisis

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

Understanding the Cold War, it is central to understand the history of the 2nd half of the 20th century. Between 1945 and 1991, there were lots of casualties in more than 100 wars that took place in the 3rd World in that period. Moreover, most of the crisis that threatened to escalate into a...

15 Jan 2009
doc

During the Cold War, what role did oil play in driving western intervention to the Middle East?

Essay - 5 pages - Modern history

After the Second World War in 1945, a new world order came up: Western Europe had to recover from the damages the war caused, and the US and the Soviet Union were competing against each other for power in a Cold War period. During this era, lasting up to the collapse of the Soviet Union in...

15 Jan 2009
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The contribution of the Salon and the Masonic Lodge to the circulation of enlightened ideas in eighteenth-century Europe

Essay - 7 pages - Modern history

The Masonic Lodge embodied the new type of private societies with public effects that developed remarkably over the eighteenth century in Europe. On the contrary, the Salon, as an official exhibition of paintings, was the representation of the influence of the monarchy on artistic matters during...

15 Jan 2009
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Le Panier: its patrimony, its rehabilitation and the new city

Essay - 4 pages - Modern history

Marseille is an old city dating from Greek Antiquity when it was called Massilia and was a harbor on the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to trade and its location between the Eastern and the Western world Marseille has become an important place. Influenced by many civilizations, the City has been...

15 Jan 2009
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The impact of the French Revolution (1789-1815) on life in France during the nineteenth century

Essay - 3 pages - Modern history

The whole nineteenth century can be seen as a century of experiment of political systems and institutions, a span of time where the French population looked for a political identity according to its specific heritage by trying a lot of regimes through different Constitutions. However, no system...

15 Jan 2009
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The experience of the Indian and Pakistani immigrant communities in Great Britain from 1948 to 1971

Essay - 42 pages - Modern history

The history of Indian and Pakistani presence in Britain is long as it dates back to the seventeenth century. Yet the influence of the South Asian community was almost insignificant at that time, for its size remained very small. Only after the Second World War (1939-1945) did South Asian...

15 Jan 2009
doc

How did the first world war affect the status of women?

Essay - 10 pages - Modern history

The First World War is one of the first conflicts, which called for the participation, and mobilization of all people, fighters as much as non-fighters. So, at the announcement of the war, men and women are going to answer present. The society and the economy of every country are going to be...

15 Jan 2009
doc

British Imperialism

Essay - 3 pages - Modern history

The American War of Independence (1775-1783) is referred to as the end of the first British Empire and as an evolution of the management of the colonies. Britain realized that trade might continue to bring prosperity even in the absence of colonial rule (this contributed to the extension in the...

15 Jan 2009
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Cause of the great famine and its place in the demographic and migration history

Essay - 5 pages - Modern history

In the 1800s, Ireland was essentially a rural country. Its economy depended only on agriculture, and its industrial system was very weak. Therefore, Ireland was very poor compared with its neighbour, England. It is considered most of all as an island belonging to England and integrated by this...

15 Jan 2009
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Was the assassination of Luis Carrero Blanco relevant?

Essay - 5 pages - Modern history

Luis Carrero Blanco has been Franco's shadow and his life is one of the most mysterious in the Spanish history of the twentieth century. He always seemed to be a minor figure. He was from the middle-class, had little ambition but had an important working capacity and above all, he was absolutely...

15 Jan 2009
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America on its way to modernity (1800-1860)

Essay - 4 pages - Modern history

The beginning of the nineteenth Century was mostly rural: indeed the Americans living in the countryside were five times in number than those living in cities. Moreover the nation grew considerably in 1790; there were four million American and seventy years later, there are thirty-nine million....

15 Jan 2009
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Why did communism become established in Eastern Europe after the Second World War? - published: 15/01/2009

Essay - 7 pages - Modern history

On the 25th of April 1945, shortly before the official end of the Second World War, American and Soviet soldiers meet at the Elbe river. But to reach the Elbe river, the Russian troops had to come all the way across Europe, and so across Eastern Europe. By the end of the same year, seven...

15 Jan 2009
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Why did Eritrea become independent?

Essay - 15 pages - Modern history

In 1993, the whole world was impressed by the state-of-the-art independence of Eritrea. Everything seemed to have been done by the rules : a declaration of independence in 1991, a notification to the UN and a referendum two years later. Being the last war of independence of Africa, it is...

15 Jan 2009
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The history of the Jagiellonian university: The history of Krakow

Essay - 4 pages - Modern history

Since its foundation in 1364, the University of Krakow has known a destiny unique of its kind. It was the second university created in Central Europe after the one in Prague - created in 1348 - and before many others afterward like in Vienna (1365), Pécs (1367), and Erfurt (1379). All...

15 Jan 2009
doc

The classical realist and structural realist theories applied to the Kosovo crisis in 1998-1999

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

Kosovo is mostly known as a region in the former Yugoslavia where, in 1998 and 1999, there was growing violence between the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which sought independence from Serbia, and the Serbian army and police, which were randomly attacking the province of the indigenous Albanian...

15 Jan 2009
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What historical factors played the greatest role in defining the Arab society and culture since the eighteenth century?

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

From the seventh to the eighteenth century, the Arab World has formed a large area regrouping a Muslim population, sharing a common religion and culture. In different parts of the Islamic World, Islam was the bound between the Umma. Since the fourteenth century, the main part of the Arab world...

15 Jan 2009
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The emancipation proclamation

Essay - 3 pages - Modern history

President Abraham Lincoln entered the war in order to preserve the union of the United States rather than to abolish slavery. Indeed, he repeatedly emphasized that his paramount objective in the war was to save the union, not to free the slaves. However, Lincoln has been such pressured by...

15 Jan 2009
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Compare and contrast the causes and nature of the two 1917 Russian Revolutions

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

“Every social group, every nationality, every region, every town, every village, had its own revolution”, wrote Christopher Read and indeed, 1917 proved to be for Russia a year of turmoil and change. Traditionally, however, 1917 is known as a year of two revolutions, February Revolution...

15 Jan 2009
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Mao's reforms: A total failure?

Essay - 5 pages - Modern history

“In time of difficulties, we must not lose sight of our achievements.” This quotation from the Communist leader Mao Tse-Tung (1893-1976) could perfectly apply to his economic policy. When Mao came to power in October 1949, China was out of a decade of war and its economy was still very...

15 Jan 2009
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Genocide: The case of Rwanda

Essay - 4 pages - Modern history

The situation in Darfur illustrates the difficulties the international community faces when it comes to deal with acts of genocide. Genocide has been defined as a crime in international law, an international Convention has been signed and international tribunals have been created to try...