Considering the belief that [except] for motherhood and the flag, no institution stood more for what was good and true about America than baseball, America was shocked to learn that her prized pastime was just as corruptible as anything else (Miller 200). The 1919 Baseball World Series was unlike any other event that had ever occurred. When the Chicago White Sox unexpectedly lost to the Cincinnati Reds, many rumors began to circulate and suspicions arose. Over the course of the next few years, inquiries were made, players were tried, and the crookedness of the games was revealed. Although the outcome of a World Series that was played over eighty years ago might seem inconsequential to baseball today, Chicago's scandalous loss drastically affected the baseball world. When eight players from the Chicago White Sox team agreed to throw the World Series in 1919, baseball was changed forever.
[...] The conclusion of the trial did not terminate the lasting effects of the 1919 World Series Scandal. The Scandal was never forgotten; to this day baseball remains scarred from the 1919 World Series. The 1919 Series has had a lasting impact on not only baseball but also the nation. Never before in the history of the game did the need for a Commissioner arise. As Stephen Jay Gould states in the Introduction of the book Eight Men Out, the Commissioner of Baseball was an “office set up in direct response to the Black Sox Scandal.” After the scandal broke out, Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis was hired as baseball's first Commissioner in order to keep order and determine what actions should be taken in response to the 1919 Series. [...]
[...] Excitement grew on a daily basis as fans eagerly awaited the commencement of the 1919 World Series. After all, the short 1918 baseball season was a grave disappointment, and the 1919 World Series was the first series played after World War I. With an entire nation in need of entertainment, the series was greatly anticipated. Miller expounds, World Series of was anticipated with what seemed to be more than the usual eagerness, perhaps because it was the first series of peacetime and because the Cincinnati Reds had somehow managed to rise above their accustomed lowly state and finish the season as the National League champions” (200). [...]
[...] Games 4 and 5 were miserably lost with horrific plays: Cicotte made game-losing errors; Williams lost his start; Gandil, Felsch, and Risberg combined for a low batting average of .168; and McMullin made nothing of his appearance as pinch-hitter (“History of the World Series: 1919”). However, the Series started looking up during Games 6 and 7. Game 6 was a true team effort with Kerr's 10-inning win, Gandil's game-deciding hit, and Jackson's .375 batting average (“History of the World Series: 1919”). [...]
[...] Although there were many gamblers who ultimately became a part of the 1919 World Series, Attell was very influential in the money collection process while using Rothstein's name as a cover. Even considering Attell's involvement, there was clearly not a sole mastermind behind the entire fix (Everstine). There were more than a dozen gamblers who were consulted when the question of the players' payments was considered. After down payments proved the gamblers' willingness to be involved, the players proceeded with their plans to throw the 1919 World Series. [...]
[...] He contacted Sullivan, a well-known gambler with many connections, weeks before the start of the 1919 World Series and offered to throw the Series for (“Others involved in the Scandal”). After contacting Sullivan, Gandil felt confident about the fix. After his proposal had been accepted, Gandil knew he would need several teammates to pull off his plan. After contacting star pitcher Eddie Cicotte and confirming his desire to join, Gandil invited friends Swede Risberg and Fred McMullin to participate in his scheme. [...]
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