"Globalization, understood as the extension of the market economy and capitalism in the world, has accelerated over the last thirty years. " Thus the companies that choose to internationalize are growing. This internationalization promotes contacts between cultures, which play a fundamental role in the behavior of the individual. One might think that with a uniform, "Westernization" of cultures the global economy would be accompanied by the appearance of a unique culture. However, many observers attest to the maintenance of cultural differences. In spite of the cultural affinities present, the world does not share the same standards, values, and social practices. Hence we see the emergence of cultural differences, such as differences in tastes and ways of thinking, consumption patterns, attitudes, values and distinct references.
Paradoxically, there is increasing globalization, and at the same time an affirmation of particularism that has never been stronger. The existence of different cultures around the world necessitates that anyone who wishes to conduct business internationally, needs to be aware of cultural differences, and understand the thinking of other people.
The company which decides to internationalize will have growing interactions with different cultures in many areas including management, marketing strategy, negotiation and so on. Intercultural relations are inseparable from the phenomenon of globalization.
The company must decide whether to consider these differences, which are unavoidable, when it expanded abroad.
What impact do these differences have?
Long ignored, intercultural relations have now become the subject of increasing study. Indeed, it was easier to claim, that cultural differences disappear and we can treat the world as a global village, as the proponents of globalization did, but this is not true. Indeed, although often understated, the cultural aspect can make all the difference. Through the example of Disneyland Paris, I will try to demonstrate the importance of cultural differences during the implementation of a product abroad.
Disney is an American company that creates theme parks, which, having achieved success in its country of origin, decided to turn to international markets. Indeed in the 70's and 80's, the success of the Disney parks in California and Florida was due to American visitors as well as due to international visitors. Millions of foreign tourists visited the parks each year. Given this reality, Disney concluded that it would make sense to export the concept of Disneyland. However, one question remained: could the Disney model be exported as successfullu outside the United States?
The first Disney park outside of United States was built in Tokyo, Japan, and opened in 1983. It was an immediate success, and between 1983 and 1988, almost half of Japan, which represents 50 million people, had visited the park.
Thus it was with confidence that the Walt Disney Company decided to export the concept to Europe after 80 years. The 2.7 million Europeans who visit the parks in California and Florida every year, spend 1.6 billion dollars in Disney products. Thus it was rational to believe in the success of a park in Europe.
[...] The focus was more than ever on the visual elements, to deal with the diversity of European languages. The park has two official languages: English and French, but multilingual guides are available in German, Spanish and Italian visitors Because of the diversity of languages, imagineers attempted to minimize the need for translation (eg menus in restaurants) and emphasized the visual rather than on written or oral communication. They did not, for example, create attractions such as the "jungle cruise", a cruise that takes place only in English in the United States, and involves real interaction between the participant and the "cast member" . [...]
[...] Indeed, it appears to be a foreign threat, which promotes a return to roots, and the cultural values of the companies different, though they may look alike Faced with this reality, the sociologist Roland Robertson invented the concept of "glocalization". The term glocal comes from the Japanese word "Dochakuka" denoting that the techniques used to grow crops must adapt to local conditions. A term now in vogue, the word glocal comes from the apparently paradoxical combination between "global" and "local". [...]
[...] After an adjustment period of its concept to the French culture, Disneyland Paris is now accelerating growth / objectives The objectives of Disneyland Resort Paris are of several kinds: Increase the attendance of the park: The growth strategy is to increase penetration in the market for first- timers - those Europeans who know the resort, want to come but have not yet done.This strategy is intended to increase the rate of repeat visits. Increase attendance of Walt Disney Studios without cannibalizing the customer's first park We must strengthen the image of Walt Disney Studios, make it more attractive, complementary to Disneyland and not as a substitute (the public chooses between one or the other, instead of visiting both). [...]
[...] concept is more complex Walt Disney Studios, or misunderstanding the client's expectations a / The failure of the new park b / The company has made mistakes 2 / Development of an effective marketing plan c / A set of complex variables b / SWOT analysis of Disneyland Resort Paris B / Development of a comprehensive marketing strategy to boost attendance at the park / Objectives 2 / Action Plan a / Bring the first timers with lower prices b / Increase the rate of revisits to the park. [...]
[...] However, the appreciation of French culture has proved trickier than expected, and the example shows that Disneyland Paris requires a thorough understanding of the culture in which the company immersed to find this balance. II / Cultural practices are difficult to understand and assimilate As we have seen earlier, ignoring cultural differences is a risk, and there is no doubt that the key to success abroad lies in the adaptation of the company's products. However, this proves to be a difficult task, because it requires a thorough understanding of the culture of the target consumer, and effective assimilation of the learning. [...]
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