Composite material failure, aircraft, construction of aircraft, fibre composites
Some composite materials used in construction of aircraft structures started appearing in late 1930s as well as 1940s. Typically, they used to be plasticity impregnated wood materials at that time, with the well know as well as the largest example being Duramold constructing the eight engine Hughes Flying Boat. The Duramold materials as well as construction methods also got to be used for a few aircraft productions. Interest in the use of fibreglass material developed in the 1940's, in the manufacture for fabrics made of glass fibres. By the time 1960s, there were enough techniques as well as materials already developed for making more extensive use of fibres material possible. Composite is a term that is used for this construction method to means integration of different materials to come up with a single material of lightweight, stronger as well as provide other benefits that could not be achievable with each of the materials being used separately. Fibre composites comprise of fibre reinforced resin matrix. Resin could be epoxy, vinyl polyester or even polyester. On the other hand, the strengthened could be any of the different fibres available such as boron, glass among others.
[...] As seen before, in composites, tensile failures form rough fractures surfaces. Observation showed roughness on the right composite lug. The rough appearance on the surface assisted the NTSB to make the determination that, the failure of the lag took place under tensile loads. On the two remaining lugs on the stabilizer's right side, a similar roughness was evident, through which the NTSB made the conclusion that the lugs within that side failed as a result of overstress due to tensile loading. [...]
[...] As number of cycles increase then accumulates. Do not forget that development of cracks could even occur while maximum cycle stress happens to way below static cracking threshold for cycles; however, these only happen after numerous cycles. Early matrix cracking initiation within fatigue in relation to static loading is results to decrease in threshold for onset of other damage types. Delaminations could spread over many thousands of cycles leading to separating laminate into discrete laminae that go on supporting tensile loads through the plies (Hollaway, 2001) Delamination Composite materials are made inform of laminates ( ASAL ILMU, 2015). [...]
[...] Fibre pu;;out indicates tension failure within composite structures. Is cause happens to be breaking of individual fibres as well as getting pulled off the matrix. As a result, holes appear on the matrix surface and this as well indicates failure under tention. Tension failures that result to failure of the matrix, fibres do not break and this may be reffered to as fibre briding. Puled fibres length could indicate loading as well as environmental condotions with which the structure was exposed to during failure. [...]
[...] Middleton, D 1990, Composite Materials in Aircraft Structures, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, Essex, p. 228-343. Olson, J 1994, Advanced Aerospace Materials/Composites: Post-Mishap Environmental, Safety and Health Concerns Requirements and Recommendations (v. United States Air Force Advanced Composites Program Office, McClellan AFB, CA Roach, D 2000, Further Evolution of Composite Doubler Aircraft Repairs Through a Focus on Niche Applications, FAA Airworthiness Assurance Centre Sandia National Laboratories, U.S. Department of Energy, Albuquerque, NM. Russell, T Fibre Composite Aircraft Capability, Safety & Accident Response. [...]
[...] Some hybrid glass aluminium reinforced plastic system at 20% was used for the A380 fuselage resulting to a much light weight structure not forgetting the increased rate of tolerance to damage as well as improved fatigue life. In the Airbus 30 wings, glass fibre reinforce plastic, quartz fibre reinforced plastic as well as carbon fibre reinforced plastic have been extensively used as well as within the fuselage (rear fuselage end as well as the undercarriage), doors as well as the surfaces of the tail. It became the very 1st airliner with central wing box that is made of carbon FRP. [...]
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