At first sight, a rocket seems to be about fire, noise and smoke. The basic principle of rocket is the famous Newtonian principle which says that "To every action, there is an equal and opposite action". A rocket throws mass in one direction and benefit of an equal reaction in the opposite direction. The first man who invented the rocket is the famous Mao Yuanyi in 1621. He wrote eighty books about that subject. (Visual). Indeed, those rockets were used for war. However, there is another famous man that usually use rocket, and here he is…. (Visual). This is the Coyote and he wants above all to catch Beep Beep. So, in order to achieve that goal, he decided to use a rocket. He put some gunpowder inside the tank, he jump on it and he lights the candle. Why his rocket exploded? Solid fuel has to burn very quickly but not explode.
GUNPOWDER: gunpowder is made up 75% nitrate, 15% carbon and 10% sulphur. Therefore, we may change the mix into 72% nitrate, 24% carbon and 4% sulphur. Instead of getting gunpowder, we get a solid-fuel that does not explode and burn during a long time (2 to 5 minutes).
[...] Fusion propulsion: In order to go to mars or other planets, we need to go faster than the conventional rockets. These engines will only need liquid hydrogen which the most common gas in the universe. That-s why all spacecraft could refuel itself in space. A fusion engine will be able to create the same temperature and pressure inside the combustion chamber that occurs in the core of the sun. Indeed, a fusion reaction occurs when two hydrogen atoms hit themselves and create a helium atom and a lot of energy. [...]
[...] The upper limit of speed is theoretically above the speed required to get a rocket into space. However, Air breathing vehicle can't provide enough thrust for lift-off. They have to be combined with liquid fuel engines which are able to bring the rocket to Mach 2 or 3. At this speed, enough air is sucked in for the combustion. Air breathing vehicles also need very little liquid-fuel rockets to provide a little thrust in space. These rockets will be used in most cases to get person and material to the ISS orbital Currently, The NASA is planning for 2005 a flight demonstration of the air- breathing rocket. [...]
[...] They are safe (well not for the Coyote) The disadvantages are shown by the Coyote The strength of the thrust can not be controlled. There is no way to stop the burning process, once the "candle is lighted". Those kinds of engines are usually used in booster systems or missiles that will be used in the 3rd world war. To be able to control the thrust, we need liquid propellant system. Liquid-fuel rockets In liquid engines, we used a fuel and an oxidiser (liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen) which are pumped into a combustion chamber where there is an exothermic chemical reaction. [...]
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