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08 Apr 2009

Common effluent treatment methods

Thesis - 7 pages - Physics

Pollution may be defined as any condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations that they can produce undesirable effects or changes in physical, chemical, biological, radiological properties of air, water, soil. Such substances are called pollutants. The primary air...

08 Apr 2009

Taking a closer look at coal

Thesis - 10 pages - Physics

The word "coal" came from Anglo-Saxon col, which meant charcoal. Coal was not mined in Britain before the late Middle Ages; i.e. after ca. 1000 AD. Mineral coal was referred to as sea-coal, either because it was found on beaches occasionally having fallen from the exposed coal seams above or...

08 Apr 2009

Methods for removal of H2S from effluent gas

Thesis - 6 pages - Physics

The environment performs three basic functions in relation to man. First, it provides living space and other amenities that make life qualitatively rich for man. Second, the environment is a source of agricultural, mineral, water and other resources that are consumed directly. Third, the...

06 Apr 2009

Crystal growth and its characterization

Tutorials/exercises - 26 pages - Physics

Recent developments in semiconductor research technology over that last decade have lead to a renew interest in the growth of single crystals with better physical perfection and high crystal growth is newly emerging field in this study of material science which involves control phase...

01 Apr 2009

Ion selective electrode potentiometry

Tutorials/exercises - 11 pages - Physics

The use of ISEP offers great selectivity in the determination of trace elements. With the utilization of a fluoride ion selective electrode, the concentration within the unknown sample were determined to be approximately 0.0423 +/- 3.5x10-4 mol/L. (Standard deviation = 4.58 x 10-4) In...

05 Mar 2009

Study on impeller manufacturing for centrifugal fans

Thesis - 27 pages - Physics

The Tail Rotor Spindle is the one of the main component in the Helicopters. The helicopters are used for transportation, for construction, for firefighting, search and rescue, and a variety of other jobs that requires its special capabilities. Helicopters are the most versatile flying...

05 Mar 2009

A study of the power press

Thesis - 17 pages - Physics

Press is a tool used to work on sheet metal to convert its shape to the required item. Power presses are used for producing large quantities of components quickly, accurately and economically from the cold working of mild steel and other ductile materials. The components produced range over an...

05 Mar 2009

Study of DC drives

Tutorials/exercises - 50 pages - Physics

In general practice in industrial applications machine tools make use of motors for their feed applications where in, speed of this motors are controlled in conventional methods i.e., Ward-Leonard system, multiple voltage control, rheostatic control method etc. However, these methods are...

19 Jan 2009

Gamma ray spectroscopy using a scintillator detector

Essay - 6 pages - Physics

The aim of the experiment is to learn about the basic techniques of gamma ray energy spectroscopy and the interpretation of a spectrum, using a NaI(TI) detector. We obtained the spectra of two gamma sources using a spectrometer and the Maestro program. We also computed the energy resolution of...

16 Jan 2009

Fuel cells

Essay - 7 pages - Physics

What are the limiting factors in the introduction of PEM fuel cells into mobile power generation? What areas of research are being carried out to address these limitations and which of these do you feel will have the biggest impact in enabling the various types of fuel cells systems? Proton...

15 Jan 2009

The basic principle of a rocket

Essay - 3 pages - Physics

At first sight, a rocket seems to be about fire, noise and smoke. The basic principle of rocket is the famous Newtonian principle which says that "To every action, there is an equal and opposite action". A rocket throws mass in one direction and benefit of an equal reaction in the opposite...

12 Jan 2009

Computer simulation study of ionic and non ionic hydration

Tutorials/exercises - 6 pages - Physics

Liquids, solution, and liquid crystals present local, but not long-range order. On one hand particles in liquids interacts much strongly than the particles in gas, and this prevents the use of the usual statistical mechanics methods to predict their structure and properties since the needed...

04 Dec 2008

Applications of NMR imaging in processing of foods

Essay - 7 pages - Physics

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), originally developed for medical applications, has recently been exploited for observation and characterization of foodstuffs and their manufacture. MRI and its related techniques have already proven useful in non-invasive observations of fruit and vegetable...

14 Nov 2008

NASA

Essay - 4 pages - Physics

NASA began full operation on October 1, 1958, after the National Advisor Committee on Aeronautics was abolished. Getting a little head start, NASA inherited the committee's facilities, laboratories, and personnel and immediately set to work planning its future. According to a Twenty-Fifth...

14 Nov 2008

NASA: Past, present and future

Essay - 11 pages - Physics

As with any industry, there have been many high and low points to the space programs. Many of the low points came as loss of both life and much money. These also came mostly in the beginning of the space programs when we were still unsure of many of the variables that space presents. Many...

15 Oct 2008

Problems associated with unsupervised classification of high resolution imagery ( pictures included )

Essay - 6 pages - Physics

Early satellite systems with multispectral resolutions on the order of 20m (SPOT 1 - 4) or 30m (Landsat 4 - 7) have been able to obtain imagery of sufficient resolution to effectively classify areas with large contiguous areas of information classes, i.e. scenes of dense forest vegetation or...

28 Jul 2008

Applications of aqueous equilibria

Presentation - 90 pages - Physics

When AgNO3 is added to a saturated solution of AgCl, it is often described as a source of a common ion, the Ag+ ion. By definition, a common ion is an ion that enters the solution from two different sources. Solutions to which both NaCl and AgCl have been added also contain a common ion; in this...

28 Jul 2008

Equilibrium: Heat energy

Presentation - 90 pages - Physics

Heat is energy flowing from a high temperature object to a low temperature object. When the two objects are at the same temperature, there is no net flow of energy or heat. That is why a covered cup of coffee will not be colder than or warmer than the room temperature after it has been in there...

20 Jul 2008

Hardness test of metals: An experiment using the Brinell test and the Rockwell test

Essay - 6 pages - Physics

Hardness has been defined in several ways over time, mostly by physicists, metallurgists and engineers. Different definitions range from hardness being defined as a collection of properties of a material more or less related to each other to resistance to permanent indentation. The difficulty to...

11 Jun 2008

The development and application of hydrogen energy in the United States

Essay - 3 pages - Physics

In his State of the Union Address, President Bush made the observation that the United States had become addicted to foreign oil. The recent surge in gas prices is clearly reflective of this addiction. Americans have become so reticent in their oil usage that they are now willing to pay in excess...

15 Apr 2008

EDTA Titration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in Bottled Water

Course material - 4 pages - Physics

The objective of this experiment is to determine the total concentration of metal ions required to completely react with EDTA, or ethylene diamine tetra-acetate. The concentration determined will then be taken as the equivalent concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Ca2+ will be analyzed...

04 Dec 2007

How Mad is Reefer?

Essay - 4 pages - Physics

From the age of twelve and older nearly 40% of our country, about 98 million Americans, has used Cannabis sativa for its psychological and physiological effects in much the same way as it has been throughout recorded history (AMA Council). This lengthy past has constructed a harsh stigma...

20 Nov 2007

Gas Chromatography

Case study - 4 pages - Physics

Chromatography is a technique used to separate and analyze chemicals. It was initially discovered in the early 1900's by chemist Mikhail Tsvett who was researching chlorophyll to separate plant pigments.1 The components undergoing separation are divided into two phases, a stationary phase, and a...

13 Nov 2007

Generating Electricity

Presentation - 10 pages - Physics

The blade of a turbine is tilted an angle. Movement of the air is channeled creating low and high pressures on the blade that force it to move. The blade is connected to a shaft which in turn is connected to an electrical generator. The mechanical energy of the turning blades is...

23 Oct 2007

Development in LSD Synthesis

Essay - 3 pages - Physics

LSD, the common abbreviation for Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-25, often termed “acid” in the streets, is one of the most potent hallucinogenic substances known to man. The chemical was actually synthesized for the first time in 1938 by a German scientist named Albert Hoffman. However, in...

09 Oct 2007

Ka and Buffer Titrations

Case study - 2 pages - Physics

As living things, we are highly sensitive to changes in our environment; this doesn't only mean changes outside our body, but changes from within also. For the cells in our bodies to function properly a certain temperature and pH has to be maintained. Even a slight change in pH inside our bodies...

26 Sep 2007

Experiment: Mole Ratios, Limiting and Excess Reactants and Precent Yield

Case study - 4 pages - Physics

The purpose of this lab is as follows: To use mole ratios to predict the amount of precipitate formed, to use mole ratios to study the effect of reactant molarity on the yield of product, to use mole ratios to study limiting and excess reactants, and to design an experiment which achieves the...

26 Sep 2007

Chemical Changes

Case study - 6 pages - Physics

The purpose of this lab was to find out the indications of chemical changes and reactions when mixing two different substances, which are listed specifically in the Observations section. The purpose is also to find out how a percent by mass solution is made up. The data and observations that is...

25 Jun 2007

Ferromagnetism and the Curie-Weiss Law

Course material - 3 pages - Physics

In "Ferromagnetism and the Curie-Weiss Law" the author will start by giving a more complete derivation of the Curie-Weiss law, which might make a few points clearer. Then he will try to address some of your questions more directly. The author hopes that the derivation itself will make things...

25 Jun 2007

Position of the Fermi Level for Extrinsic Semiconductors: Additional Notes for Solid State Physics

Course material - 2 pages - Physics

In "Position of the Fermi Level for Extrinsic Semiconductors" the author will talk a little more in detail about doped semiconductors. Here, the author answers the following questions: (i) What is the position of the Fermi level for an extrinsic semiconductor? (ii) What is the...