For a couple of years, the concept of strategy has become fundamental for any type of business. According to Ansoff (1965), the practice of strategic planning is now widespread among large, medium and small firms. The strategy comes from the Greek word stractos which means "armed" and agein which means lead. It's the art of coordinating action and the development of a policy, defined in terms of its strengths and weaknesses, taking into account the threats and opportunities. According to A.D Chandler; a strategy is to determine the objectives and the long-term fundamentals goals of an organization. In a second step, it helps in choosing the purpose, the resources and the means to achieve these goals and objectives (Chandler 1962). Strategy helps all managers take fundamental decisions about the future of a business.
[...] There isn't a clear distinction between the strategy development and implementation phases, according to Lynch (2003) “they are closely linked one responding to the result obtained by the other” p17. Managers make experiments, tests. He writes “There is no final, agreed strategy but rather a series of experimental approaches that are considered by those involved and then developed further. Strategy emerges during a process of crafting and testing” p19. On the one hand the deliberate strategy provides a complete overview of the organisation, what makes it possible to make an evaluation of organization resources in the, environment. [...]
[...] In taking decisions along company's life, the strategy is auto-determined by the management actions Therefore, it exists only two approaches to develop strategy. The first is the prescriptive strategy which opposes the second the emergent strategy. According to several authors, these approaches have different names. Indeed, Ansoff (1965) founding Dean of the Graduate School of Management uses the name of prescriptive and descriptive approaches. As Ansoff, Mintzberg professor of Management and theorist deemed deals with the prescriptive and descriptive approaches. [...]
[...] Apple, for example, is a company specialized in the computer material. Nowadays, it is a sector where companies must be more and more innovating and especially very reactive. Directors can't choose only one strategy so they use at the same time emergent and deliberate strategy. The search engine Google is in the same case, his strategy is therefore deliberate in long-term direction but emergent in detail. At the beginning, the small company employed 39 persons in 1999 and became a multinational of more than 10.000 people. [...]
[...] He gives a part of it to the photographer and the remainder for the company (Jean Batiste Duval 2007). Oleg must obligatorily use an emergent strategy because he must be flexible and so this strategy enables him to take into account the customer requirements. Moreover, Singapore Airlines is an airline company which has chosen to use the deliberate strategy. At the beginning, Singapore Airlines was a small regional airline in 1972. The managers decided to set up of good services for the customers (headsets), then they make formations for the personnel, they developed the airport of Singapore. [...]
[...] One can however show that in our current world it is much more difficult for a company to set up a deliberate strategy than an emergent strategy. Indeed, between the technological innovations, companies as Google which revolutionizes all, it is difficult to have a strategy planned, defined and structured. The companies must be reactive and have needs to change their strategy constantly to counter a competitor. Therefore, all companies can't predict the future, they can set up strategies and to do everything they can to run these strategies. [...]
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