The history of corporate social responsibility is as old as trade and business itself. Business-related operations, for example, along with laws to protect forests, can be traced back to almost 5,000 years ago. When we look at history, we can see that in Ancient Mesopotamia around 1700 BC, King Hammurabi created a code in which builders, innkeepers or farmers were put to death if their carelessness led to the deaths of others, or major problem to local citizens. In Ancient Rome, senators were complaining about the failure of businesses to help fund their military campaigns through taxes, whereas in 1622, shareholders in the Dutch East India Company were so irritated that they started issuing pamphlets protesting management confidentiality and self-interest.
During the industrialization, the impacts of business on society and the environment led to a new aspect. The corporate paternalists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries made use of some of their affluence and means to support philanthropic ventures.
[...] Ethical Training Companies have begun to take a more targeted approach in their corporate social responsibility trainings and are aiming to help employees make ethical decisions when the answers are unclear. For many companies, ethical training is an important part of their strategy, since the needs exist in all geographic areas, across all subject areas, and for all kinds of people. At this point, companies can't afford some of the reputation risks and so are training workers accordingly by addressing these risks. [...]
[...] Because other businesses do not have the same water treatment standards, Coca-Cola has taken the imitative in creating internal standards, and partnering up with their associates to enforce such standards. Building on-site water treatment systems ensures that the water treatments meet the standards. As of today, eighty-five percent of Coke's facilities and partners are aligned with the company's internal wastewater standards, and hope that by the end of 2010 all of the remaining facilities join. Replenish, consists of replenishing water in communities and nature through a global network of local partnerships and projects. [...]
[...] (Friedman, 1970) Another criticism that Friedman brings to the table is that of corporate social responsibility is not compatible with the free market principles of the western world. He states that rather than working to artificially bring about improvements to life expectancy, health, or any other myriad of supposed corporate social responsibility's accomplishments, these should be accomplished naturally. Friedman argues that all of these have been brought about because of economic improvements due to a free market and not because corporations' responsibilities. [...]
[...] Many scholars believe that corporate social responsibility rose to prominence once again during the late 1990's due to rise of corporate profitability that led the CSR movement to reassert itself. In the 21st century, marketplaces have become more conscience-focused and increased the demand for more ethical business processes and actions known as ethicism. Moreover, pressure on marketplaces got heavier to improve business ethics through new public initiatives and laws such as higher UK road tax for higher-emission vehicles. Nowadays, most major corporate websites emphasize explicitly on their commitment to promoting non-economic social values. [...]
[...] In addition to creating programs that help the environment and society, the company have also greatly benefited from those actions by establishing plants that are a lot more efficient than what they were years ago. Criticism and Concern Like any other aspect of business, corporate social responsibility has both its proponents and critics. Some find the concept of corporate social responsibility to be at odds with the fundamental reason for the existence of corporations. Others question why corporations actually participate in the concept, believing that the companies are either insincere or hypocritical or both. Corporate Purpose vs. Social Responsibility A popular notion currently is that corporations have a responsibility to society as a whole. [...]
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