Plant layout is very essential and needs consideration and attention from the very beginning so as to avoid subsequent problems. Though one can think of several layouts but the best one is obviously the one, which is both very systematic and cheap. It is arrangement of machines, scientific use of work area, easy and convenient transport system, easy sorting out of materials and processing different parts. Since the area has already been selected and it is neither possible to neither change that nor expand that as per needs of the factory therefore layout is to be adjusted accordingly. Thus layout is disposition of various facilities and services of the plant within the specified area. It is arrangement of location of different machines and plants within the factory in such a way that there is minimum possible cost, the maximum output and the best quality product. In it all the requirements connected with production like the raw materials, machines, tools, fixtures etc. to be properly cared from the very beginning with the design of the factory. It is the agreement with the main focus that each operation is performed without the least inconvenience.
[...] In it operations are performed on a rotary table and the components are moved from one working station to the other. These are inspected before being moved onto a second line for another process or operation, etc. It can usefully be adopted in industries engaged in bulb manufacturing. Usually, however, in actual practice combination of more than one flow is adopted. An example of O+U flow systems is shown in the figure below. HORIZONTAL FLOW PATTERN DIAGRAM VERTICAL FLOW PATTERN: 1. [...]
[...] Skill of laborers: the skill of labor forces in a process type of layout is usually higher than in the product type of layout since the workmen are expected to operate number of general purpose machines capable of performing wide variety of jobs. In fact labor force in project or jobbing production is expected to be highly skilled. Highly qualified trade apprentices are employed who are expected to work for minimum instructions. Instruction regarding “what to make” are issued in form of specifications while instruction as to to manufacture” are usually oral. [...]
[...] Thus, the product in relation to the other factors of production deserves consideration in planning a layout: in same, the size of product should be considered in planning the layout of a plant. The layout requirements for assembling a watch are different from those for the assembly of an aero plane. The manufacture of certain products involves wet operations, as in leather or textile dyeing. Worker : The layout designer should also consider the type, position and requirements of employees. [...]
[...] COMPARISION BETWEEN PRODUCT LAYOUT AND PROCESS LAYOUT The relative characteristics of product and process layout are : Plant investment : product layout requires higher initial investment than process layout as a special purpose machines are costly and a times requires to be duplicated to balance the production line. Requirement of space : process layout requires comparatively more space than product layout since additional space is required to- keep the jobs which queue up before each time. accumulate jobs until they are moved next work station. [...]
[...] Still another objective is that the supervisory staff is in a position to control production and to the extent possible production cycle time is reduced. There should be scope for improved work methods and introducing changes, but at the same time it needs be ensured that there is minimum need for effecting changes. Sufficient space and scope should be there for better working conditions for all categories of employees. PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT 1. Scientific and systematic laying out f plant should be based on certain sound principles, which have come to stay with the passage of time. [...]
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