Seaports are built basically to facilitate the transfer of cargo between inland and maritime transport. Ports are therefore, an essential link in the international maritime transport chain. The main function of the sea ports is to ensure that the prosperity of all countries depends to a very large extent on foreign trade. Particularly true of developing counties, which need foreign currency to buy capital equipment, materials and technological skills so essential for economic development. A seaport has facilities for berthing of container vessels, loading / discharge of containers on / from vessels / trucks / railway, area for storage of import / export containers and good land connection by way of roads / rail. The entire import and export procedure is a vast series of events. A brief overview of this procedure is that a customer first has to contact the container line. The container line books the cargo, and depending upon the volume/weight of the material to be sent across. The streamer agent keeps track of the cargo. After the cargo is released various custom procedures take place at the CFS. Managing logistics in international markets is much more complex due to physical distance, difference in logistics system and their compatibility, different legal systems, and numerous intermediaries involved. All these logistics objectives are interrelated to each other and may be achieved by a firm's integrated logistics management strategy. The integrated system comprising inbound and outbound logistics is nowadays referred to as supply chain management.
[...] It is a very simple and versatile liner used to protect your containerized cargo. Often equipment or materials have to be protected from salt, air, dust, grime and other pollution which collect during transit. The wide opening allows for unrestricted access to the container during the loading. Two Grade Types: 1. Standard Duty 2. Heavy Duty for extra protection (This has an extra layer of felt material which is used to prevent puncturing of the liner as well as to handle rough transit conditions) Installation The bulk liner is suspended in place by attaching the hanging points to hooks in the roof of the container. [...]
[...] outside of the USA) international agreements such as the CLC and Fund Conventions have provided clear levels of compensation that the oil industry are committed to provide to protect the environment. The MARPOL convention is a major force in ensuring a professional attitude is required of any vessel owner/operator carrying persistent oil as cargo BULK CARRIERS Bulk carriers ("bulkers") are the great work horses of the shipping world, carrying raw dry cargoes in huge cavernous holds, such as coal, iron ore, grain, sulphur, scrap metal. [...]
[...] Charter shipping Liner shipping are used. with cargo gears are used. vessels with larger size, frequently, smaller ships are are engaged. single low value cargo manufactured and semi finished goods. much significance crucial to liner operators to give them a competitive edge. a single shipper at a time a large no. of shippers. bulk as loose materials. packages, cases, rolls, etc. schedule. brokers or agents. freight forwarders. freight rates. pre-determined tariff structure. document of transport contract. document of transport contract. [...]
[...] correct quantity At desired location At right time In usable condition In the most cost effective manner All these logistics objectives are interrelated to each other and may be achieved by a firm's integrated logistics management strategy. The integrated system comprising inbound and outbound logistics is nowadays referred to as supply chain management. Global logistics has two components: material management and physical distribution. The physical distribution consists of the following constituents: Warehousing Inventory Packing & unitization Information & communication technology Transportation (transportation is the most significant and distinct aspect of global logistics) PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT PDM is concerned with ensuring that the individual efforts that go to make up the distributive function are optimized so that a common objective is realized. [...]
[...] Considerable concerns have been expressed over the bow-door type of Ro-Ro design. If water is allowed to enter the car deck, the stability of the whole vessel can be rapidly affected. It is estimated that it only needs one centimeter of water over the whole car deck, for the vessel to become so unstable that it can overturn. The ESTONIA was one such vessel where, in a storm, the shield over the bow door was ripped off. Once water penetrated the car deck the vessel began to turn over and sink. [...]
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee