Research on leadership has been part of organisation behaviour for the last one hundred years and is seen as one of social science's most researched subject (Antonakis, Cianciolo and Sternberg, 2003:5). It is believed that in 1896, the Library of congress in the USA had no book on leadership but in 1981, it had over 5000 entries (Heller, 2001:388). However leadership has interested scholars and the general public for thousand years and leadership as been in the core of research for a very long time, as Bass states: "the study of leadership rivals in age the emergence of civilisation which shaped its leaders as much as it was shaped by them. From its infancy, the study of history has been the study of leaders" (1990a:3). Leadership encompasses many fields as can be seen by the different type of people that are called leaders: From Henry V to George Washington to Lee Iaacocca who produced a dramatic change at Chrysler Corporation to business tycoons such as Robert Maxwell (Fiedler and Garcia, 1987 in Heller, 2001:388). Leaders and consequently leadership exist universally (manifest itself in one form or another across many different national and organisational context, Tirmizi, 2002:269) in every field of study (in both human kind to animal species, Antonakis et al, 2003), is common throughout Western and Easter writing (Bass, 1990) and as such is studied and examined through many different lenses. This is reflected through the large size of the unorganised literature (Smith and Cooper, 1994:3).
[...] In The Balance of Leadership & Followership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. Hollander, E.P. (1992). Leadership, followership, self and others, leadership Quarterly, 43-54. House, R.J. (1971), path goal theory of leader effectiveness”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol pp. 321-38. House, R.J. (1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In Hunt, J.G. and Larson, L.L. (Eds.) Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, pp. 189-207. House, R.J. and Mitchell, T.R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership, Contemporary Business, 81-98. [...]
[...] This is reflected through the large size of the unorganised literature (Smith and Cooper, 1994:3) Leadership literature quandary THE LEADERSHIP LITERATURE COMES IN MOST PART FROM A NORTH AMERICAN BACKGROUND AND AS SUCH MIGHT NOT BE APPLICABLE ON A WORLDWIDE BASIS (SHAHIN AND WRIGHT, 2004:499). WHILE THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN LEADERSHIP RESEARCH ACROSS DIFFERENT COUNTRIES SUCH AS HOUSE ET AL (1997), OR PETERSON AND HUNT (1997) MUCH OF THE RESEARCH STILL FOCUSES LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS AND LEADER COMPARISON IN TWO OR THREE COUNTRIES (DEANNE ET AL, 2001:178). [...]
[...] It is important to note that Fielder considered leadership styles static characteristics, as once a leader has developed a specific style; it is unlikely that they will change to another leadership style, regardless of the situation (George et al, 2002: 400). Fiedler measured these two leadership styles using a scale called the least preferred co-worker scale, which required leaders to rate the least preferred co-worker (LPC) on a number of dimensions (the LPC friendliness, enthusiasm and pleasantness). Relationship-orientated leaders described LPCs positively, while Task-oriented leaders described them negatively (George et al, 2002: 400). [...]
[...] The effects of transformational leadership on teacher attitdes and student performance in Singapore, Journal of Organizational behaviour, 16: 319-333. Korman, A K. (1966). Consideration, initiating structure, and organizational criteria- A review, Personnel Psychology, 19: 349-361. Kotter, J.P. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York: Free Press. Kotter, P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Books Lord, R.G., De Vader, C.L., & Alliger, G.M. (1986). A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures, Journal of Applied Psychology, 402-410. [...]
[...] As a result of the above, additional theories have come into play New Leadership theories THE 1980S SAW LEADERSHIP RESEARCH TAKE A NEW TURN WITH THE ARRIVAL OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP THEORIES (ANTONAKIS ET AL, 2003: AND MORE SPECIFICALLY THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP (DEANNE ET AL, 2001:173). THE NEW SET OF THEORIES LABELLED LEADERSHIP' LED TO A NEW INTEREST IN LEADERSHIP RESEARCH IN GENERAL AND IN PREVIOUS LEADERSHIP THEORIES SUCH AS THE TRAIT THEORIES (ANTONAKIS ET AL, 2003: 9). [...]
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