Today, a lot of desires or worries of the European population are linked with the employment. From the question What would you do when you grown up? to the social claims and the general strikes. The reason is simple: a job provides a means to live but above all, work is presented as a mean to develop oneself and people want and are right to believe it. But the labor market, as it is named, is not an easy thing to understand and its fluctuations are still hard to control. Indeed, despite the liberal nature of the private contracts, the labor market is strongly regulated and people, in Europe, wait a lot for the governments. We will study in this analysis the evolution of the Spanish labor market since the new democratic stability of the 80's and the measures taken by the governments. In the second part, we will focus on the unemployment question in Spain and the policies stetted by the State in order to fight against this complicated problem.
[...] Since 1984 employers were dissuaded from signing part-time contracts and part-time workers in Spain were essentially subject to the same rules, pro rata, as full-time workers. For the most part these workers ended up with temporary contracts. The policy dilemma was how to address the trade- off between the quantity and quality of part-time work, the search of new combinations of flexibility and security. The Labour Reform introduced in 1994 increased labour market flexibility in response to the new demands for greater competitiveness and lifted important restrictions on part-time work concerning maximum daily and weekly hours and the absolute ceiling of two- thirds of standard full-time hours. [...]
[...] The labour market policies are not strictly in favour of one of these theories. On the whole, we can say that the passive policy is historically following a keynesian logic as a support to the aggregate demand. In contrary, the evolution of active policies seems more linked with the neoclassical ideas even if they present a real interest for the theories of human capital. B. The employment policies in Spain The unemployment benefits. The system protection against the unemployment risk combines two levels: unemployment insurance with decreasing allowances and function of the preliminary working lives and an unemployment assistance where the allowance accounts for 75% of the inter-professional minimum wage. [...]
[...] The labour market structure in Spain seems the European distribution in 1985 with a more significant weight of the agriculture ( of the total employment) and a smaller importance of the service sector ( 52.9 Sectorial evolution of employment Source: INE Respectively to the men/women differences, Spain leads the discrimination in Europe with a difference between the masculine and feminine activity rate*, the strongest of the whole Union ( 79.8 against 33.8 for the women). These years were characterized by the beginning of the feminine incorporation in the active population*; so in all the analysis, it's necessary to separate the men and women phenomenon's not reflected by the global evolution. [...]
[...] With the reform of the Worker Statute, appeared an authentic fracture in the labour market where the conditions of access and permanence are divided into two blocs. On the one hand, there were the workers hired before the reform and their revendications became converted into the maintain of their corporatist interests to the detriment of the workers submitted to the plan of the reform, essentially women and young people. The consequence has been the increasing differentiation of the Spanish workforce along the lines of an insider-outsider divide. [...]
[...] Moreover, the geographic labour mobility in Spain is the lowest in the EU. It can be explained by several facts, characteristic of Spain. The persistence of family network, which offers support for each family member and the respective obligations for each of them, complicates this type of decision. The labour market structure, where 90 per cent of new job contracts are of a temporary nature. This kind of contract provides little security for the cost incurred by moving. The regional disparities active Occupied Unemployed Unemployment populatio populatio population rate n n I quarter de) Source: INE According to the length Historically, the long-term unemployment* has affected in Spain a proportion of unemployed people above the Union average but without a very important difference. [...]
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