Chester Irving Barnard is an important author in the field of Management Science. Although his theories are not often used they are significant for this area. His theory of the organization is an innovative concept which integrates the functions of the management that lead to the appointment of a leader. He also states the functions that are associated with the role of a leader. A formal organization is achieved by the continued cooperation, genuine willingness of individuals to work together in order to achieve organizational goals. Barnard also talks about the constituent elements of the organization. The concept of authority, decision-making, the system of rewards and communication channels are permanent and interrelationships form a coherent whole to ensure this permanence and the survival of the cooperative system.
The framework formed consists of the nature of the work of the leader and of the future managers, the continued operation of the organization, the definition of the communication system and a duty of responsibility that combines a complex character and the creation of moral codes for the organization.
I - The author
Chester Barnard was born in 1886 and died in 1961.He began working for the Bell Telephone Company in 1909 and was appointed the 0chairman of the company at the age of 41.He left the company in 1948 to become the chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation until 1952. During his lifetime, he wrote 37 articles and a book called The Functions of the Executive' it was published in 1938 by Harvard University. It was this nook that brought together several of his ideas on management.
Tags: Chester Barnard's leadership theory, the concept of cooperation in organization, attainment of organizational goals
[...] Thus, the leader as defined by Barnard is central to the organization. He is responsible for actions of the organization; he closely monitors and supervises the goals of the organization. Barnard's leader is the symbol of the organization. III - Conclusion Barnard's concepts of management are surprisingly modern because it makes the dynamics of men an inevitable part of organizational action. His quest for fundamental social and psychological organization emphasizes the need for an effective communication system that leads to successful cooperation. [...]
[...] The person must understand the order that is given. The order must not be inconsistent with the organizational goal that he has set. The person must have an interest in this order (this is actually the only reason that one will accept an order, according to Barnard). The person must be mentally and physically capable of doing what is asked. This is the concept of the "zone of indifference" that allows an individual to accept an order. A "zone of indifference" exists in every individual and can make the order acceptable only if the individual is asked constantly and consciously if he or she will accept or reject the order. [...]
[...] Communication, according to Barnard, goes beyond the simple verbal or written exchanges. It is a dynamic system that establishes the link between staff and leadership positions and which draws the channels through which information flows. Thus, an organization is always an "impersonal system of coordinated human effort with one goal which is unifying and coordinating, the capacity for communication, the effectiveness and efficiency in maintaining the objective and continuity of contributions." • Types of formal organizations For Barnard, only two formal organizations are dominant: the church and state. [...]
[...] Its inclusion of the manager's responsibilities. These include the obligation to establish and enforce a moral code in the organization and to resolve disputes arising from the implementation of this code. A few years ago, the International Communication Association identified Chester Barnard as the most important precursor of management communication. II - Concepts Theory of formal organizations • Definition C. Barnard sees organizations as a combination of the interactions, a "system of forces and individual consciously coordinated activities between two or more people." This is a "system of cooperative interactions that maintains a unit of time and place" in which individuals will participate because they will gain, from the organization, the equivalent of what they have invested. [...]
[...] This is the authority of leadership. Leadership • Leader According to Barnard, “the leader is one who has a corporate personality that is separate of his individual personality. He knows the link between authority and responsibility and establishes an efficient system of communication within the organization." Thus, authority depends on both the cooperative attitude of individuals in the organization as well as on the communication system. Indeed, "the most devoted members of the cooperative system will leave the organization if the communication system does not prove effective, if the orders are contradictory or if we do not know who is who and who does what ".The communication system is the issue in a formal organization as it defines the lines along which authority can function and if it is not set up right, it may undermine the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. [...]
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