In the era of the mass production from 1945 to 1980, companies were directed to produce identical products, with hierarchical structures, all in a stable environment. In the present era of information, companies must produce products with dynamic structures in a turbulent environment as the only constant is change. To make this environment more and more turbulent and changing, companies use strategic tools which make it possible to make an internal and external analysis of the company. On one hand, the external analysis includes the general analysis of the environment, the analysis of competition and also the analysis of the industry. On the other hand, the internal analysis includes the analysis of the resources, the analysis functions and the analysis of the performances.
[...] In the 1990 many strategic thinkers building on the work of Wernerfelt, Barrey and others, started to develop new ways of considering strategies. For Wernerfelt, resources of a firm at a given time consist of the whole of the tangible or intangible credits which are associated over one relatively long period with the activities of the firm. Beyond the credits usually taken into account by the economists (capital, work and ground), it can be a question for example of technologies, competences of the personnel, names of marks, efficient procedures, commercial contacts. [...]
[...] Then, customers and their force of negotiation: The more important the share which a Customer in the turnover of a company represents is, the more the capacity of negotiation of the customer is large. Suppliers and their capacity of negotiation: In the same way, less the turnover carried out with a Supplier is significant for this last, plus the capacity of negotiation is in favour of this Supplier. And also, the existence of substitute products: Products of which the use can harm that of the products of the market. [...]
[...] As Drucker 1997 has said human affairs, political, social, economic, or business, it is pointless to try and predict the future. But it is possible and fruitful to identify major events that have already happened, irrevocably, and that will have predictable effects in the next decade or two. It is possible, in other words, to identify and prepare for the future that has already happened.” Reference list -Knott,P.(2006) Vol44n°8 typology of strategy tool application” Management decision. - Mintzberg, H. (1979), structure of organisations”, Prentice-Hall, NJ - Marchesnay M. (1993). [...]
[...] Marked in particular by the economic recession, the stressing of the competing intensity and the acceleration of all the life cycles, the environment became increasingly imperceptible, in terms of comprehension like forecast. This new context reveals certain insufficiencies of the traditional approach, centred on the adaptation and positioning. It is at the beginning the Japanese companies which will illustrate these insufficiencies. The Japanese attempt at reduction of the costs and differentiation. In an increasingly fragmented and demanding market, they industrialize the personalization of the products. [...]
[...] According to Venkatraman and Prescott (1990), the strategy must be in coherence with the environment to reach a good performance level. Nowadays, companies install strategic tools in an environment very turbulent and changing. The level of turbulence of a market will be defined like the extent and the frequency of the changes in technology and the expressed needs (Julien and Marchesnay, 1988). The concept of turbulence was introduced by F.E E mery and E.L Trist 1965. Turbulence is a sequence of events more or less spaced in time, more or less favourable but unforeseeable as for their width and sufficiently new to involve an impact, perceived by the members of the organization, which leads to a reconsideration of the capacities of the firm because of caused embarrassment (Gueguen, 1998). [...]
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