According to the United Nation Statistics in 2003, the globe constitutes of approximately 226 countries. All these nations have their own culture. this can be more or less similar from one country to another. However, it creates a multitude of differences between individuals that managers have to manage effectively because of the current context of globalization. In fact, the development of trade, the globalization of markets, and various cross-border alliances... confronted organizations to blend daily with cultural differences and diverse workforce. Cultural diversity can be both: an asset to the team, to the organization and paradoxically also an impediment because of incomprehension like misinterpretation, difficult relationship among employees, etc. This report deals with the actual phenomenon of cultural differences and the difficulties caused by it that need to be managed in organizations; it will also express means and advices to forecast this issue successfully.
[...] [Online]. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/ EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0370390404.html Higgs, M. (1996) ‘Overcoming the problems of cultural differences to establish success for international management teams'. Team performance management pp. 36-43. Emerald [Online]. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewPDF.jsp?Filename=html/Output/Publi shed/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/1350020108.pdf Magdaleno, G. (1996) ‘Global Trends in Managing Cultural Diversity'. Cross Cultural Management. 3(4). Pp 31-36. Barmarick Publications. [Online]. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=E3B59160 01D3C5589C926D54DDB0C40D?contentType=Article&contentId=1656944 Moore, S. (1999) Understanding and managing diversity among groups at work: key issues for organizational training and development'. Journal of European Industrial Training pp 208-217. Emerald.[Online]. [...]
[...] The complexity of the Analog reflects Motorola's belief in empowerment, shared responsibility, and effective team management Approaches to knowing There are differences between cultural clusters about how they come to know things. The major difference is in the way of collecting knowledge; some prefers used library research and identify solution, whereas others prefer to visit places and people who have experienced the same challenges to find the good solution. European cultures tend to believe that information acquired through cognitive means (counting, measuring) is more valid than other ways of gathering information. [...]
[...] Another important aspect of managing cultural differences is considerable in case of mergers or acquisitions in which collaborators from several countries have to work together Theories about managing cultural differences It seems fundamental to recognize some frameworks and theories in order to analysed and fund some ‘solutions' to overcome difficulties arising from cultural differences Hofstede's model In his original work (1980) he distinguished four key dimensions which impact on national cultural differences: Individualism/Collectivism: it shows the extent to which individuals are integrated into groups. [...]
[...] To sum up, according to Moran (2007), how managers can overcome of problems arising from cultural diversity with communication, understanding : Cultural norms may not apply to the behaviour of any particular individual. Suspend judgment; try to look at the situation as an outsider. Respect others' choices about whether to engage in communication with you. Learn from generalizations about other cultures, but do not use those generalizations to stereotype. Listen actively and empathetically. Referencing and Bibliography Books Adler, N. (2002) International dimensions of organizational behaviour. [...]
[...] Small power distance The use of power should be legitimate and is subject to criteria of good and evil Skills, wealth, power, and status need not go together The middle class is large All should have equal rights Powerful people try to look less powerful than they are Power is based on formal position, expertise, and ability to give rewards The way to change a political system is by changing the rules (evolution) The use of violence in domestic politics is rare Pluralist governments based on outcome of majority votes Political spectrum shows strong center and weak right and left wings Small income differentials in society, further reduced by the tax system Prevailing religions and philosophical systems stress equality Prevailing political ideologies stress and practice power sharing Native management theories focus on role of employees Large power distance Might prevails over right: whoever holds the power is right and good Skills, wealth, power, and status should go together The middle class is small The powerful have privileges Powerful people try to look as impressive as possible Power is based on family or friends, charisma, and ability to use force The way to change a political system is by changing the people at the top (revolution) Domestic political conflicts frequently lead to violence Autocratic or oligarchic governments based on cooptation Political spectrum, if allowed to be manifested, shows weak center and strong wings Large income differentials in society, further increased by the tax system Prevailing religions and philosophical systems stress hierarchy and stratification Prevailing political ideologies stress and practice power struggle Native management theories focus on role of managers Hofstede, G. [...]
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