Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 - 1915) was an American engineer who used the scientific organization of work (OST), which is the basis of the industrial revolution of the 20th century. The principal idea is to break up the tasks, to time the movements of the workmen to improve quality, to reduce the costs and the delays. It is the beginning of assembly line work and mass production. According to its detractors, he introduced into the world of work a radical separation between those which design and those which produce. For Taylor, the workman is not there to think, but to carry out movements learnedly calculated for him. He is encouraged to be productive by a system of premiums. Any professional work must be eliminated from the workshop and be concentrated in the planning and organization offices of the company. He died in 1915, before seeing the triumph of his methods, because of the United States' entry in the war in 1917 and thus the need for doing everything to quickly increase the production and the productivity of American industry. Taylorism makes it possible to increase productivity and favors less-qualified employment, however, it appears quickly that increase in production can be obtained only by overwork.
[...] In the building, and even in the tertiary sector, where the organization of work was rather artisanal, the workmen are increasingly subjected to a mechanized rhythm, characterized by a more frequent hierarchical surveillance." Today, it is observed that, to solve the difficulties related to a Taylorian and Fordian organization of work (low quality of the products, accumulation of expensive stocks, low adaptability of the production apparatus to the variations in demand, etc), new forms of organization are in place, often inspired by the Japanese methods of production (toyotism). [...]
[...] The reduction of complexity in the management process led to increased speed and a simplicity of the operation in the company. The flexible network makes it possible for the leaders to quickly meet the demand adapted to the customer requirements by reconfiguring the processes. Moreover, it gives to the company the possibility of reacting to the incipient threats and opportunities when they emerge, rather than being constrained by a fixed and out-of-date plan. The principles of governance of the company regulate a good climate and establish a mutual confidence required to share knowledge and the best practices. [...]
[...] Any professional work must be eliminated from the workshop and be concentrated in the planning and organization offices of the company. He died in 1915, before seeing the triumph of his methods, because of the United States' entry in the war in 1917 and thus the need for doing everything to quickly increase the production and the productivity of American industry. Taylorism makes it possible to increase productivity and favours less- qualified employment, however, it appears quickly that increase in production can be obtained only by overwork. [...]
[...] ( Organization of the management : - The functional council - The general council Management is done according to the functions (quality control, cost, personnel-administrator work, technique, production and sales department). There are thus 6 functional councils which are respectively made up of 10 administrators. They establish plans on activities concerning their function, by exerting the control, and rectify the plans if there are difficulties. The functional council thus constitutes the effective decision-making apparatus. The general councils or the departmental councils establish a plan in their department to carry out the activities fixed by the functional councils. [...]
[...] There are 28 NMSCs (National Marketing & Sales Companies) and 2900 points of sale in Europe factories established in France, in the United Kingdom, in Poland, in Turkey and in Czech Republic logistic centers (spare parts and vehicles), Toyota collaborates with more than 25 transport companies and more than 200 suppliers of various parts Toyota has moved away from the Taylor model and the traditional organization to transform itself into a "Sense and Response" model, the model "Beyond Budgeting". Toyota has become a decentralized organization whose goal is to develop in a flexible and adaptable organization with flexible goals. [...]
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