First marketing courses were given in the USA at the beginning of the 20th century, in 1902 at the Michigan University by E. Jones and in 1905 in Ohio State University by J. Hagerty. These economists were specialized in agricultural markets. With data from local governments, they taught a mix of distribution, sales, purchase and advertising.
Charles Parlin is the first author specialized in marketing. He published a book in 1911, with the very famous sentence: « the customer is king » In France marketing started with the commerce revolution; in 1898 H.Garrigues writes the first book about department stores comparatively to traditional small stores
and the role of marketing (especially merchandising) Marketing is omnipresent – it influences our everyday life.
[...] Perceived costs: modify price perception (review cost) The marketing state of mind Marketing is about an attitude, a state of mind: Meet a consumer need at acceptable retail sales price, advertise promote and give samples to generate trial. Not being blind: customers are loyal to the benefits they get not to products. Staying close to your customers: intellectually and physically. Basing decisions on facts and not opinions or gut feels. Being synthetic and anticipating: contradictory and perishable information. Keeping an eye open on competition: customers switch brands easily. [...]
[...] Communication is essential to adapt to the market and to consumers' needs, ability for a quick and well suited adaptation is key for the marketing. Several major changes during that period: many more industries, longer cycle of production, shorter product life cycle, more critical and educated consumers, and price is no more the key variable of demand. Since the 1980's: the environment is getting more & more prominent (offer > demand) the company is more dependent of external variables: technology, economy, sociology, legislation. The environment is uncertain and unstable. [...]
[...] Cheaper cost for handling information and quicker information flow with more powerful microprocessors it is useful to companies and to people in general. Easier and more compatible languages (text files, musical files) Impact of internet on marketing: Productivity gains are made possible thanks to automatization, panel data is now fully automatized (data from shops to research institutes). Salesmen have an easier job, many administrative tasks are automatized (sending an order, weekly report Voice servers can inform customers at a cheaper cost than a traditional call center Internet is a revolution for many marketing activities: a universal tool to communicate all over the world in a cheap way, customized communication, with many databases incorporating individual data becomes a distribution channel by itself. [...]
[...] The product value goes beyond the objective product, there is also a subjective value. What does value means to the customer : Perceived value = perceived benefits perceived cos How can we signal value to the customer: Via tangible elements, differentiated product offer, external product aspect (weight, size, shape), packaging, width of assortment, after sales service, delivery facilities/offers Via intangible elements: brand associations, market shares, guarantees, personalization How to create value: All fundamental marketing tools will help create value: product policy, price policy, place policy, publicity policy the Marketing Mix 4 P's We need to determine which characteristics the offer should have to increase the value perception. [...]
[...] Marketing is about a set of diverse activities: Research: - Market research (adhoc surveys qualitative quantitative desk research Follow up of the competitive strength of the company (panels, advertising monitoring ) Control and post-evaluation of the efficiency of marketing actions Strategic marketing: - Definition of the brand strategy , positioning and policy Choice / selection of target markets or customers Product development , together with associated services Pricing policy Choice of distribution channels and management of relationship between producers and distributors Development of the communication policy Development of a CRM program Operational marketing: - Implementation of promotion and advertising campaigns Instruction to the salesforce/ implementation of direct marketing actions Distribution of products and merchandising After sales service The marketing key concepts: The two major marketing styles: A more codified marketing: more frequent in large companies (eg.Orange, EDF) or international groups (Eg.P& Unilever). Processes and tools are well identified, codified, written and shared among all marketing actors in the company. Little room for creativity. A more intuitive marketing: rather carried out by company leaders who have a strong faith in their product and who have an overall prospective view of the context (eg. [...]
APA Style referenceFor your bibliography
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee