Human resources, Japan, United States of America, USA, power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation, indulgence, labour market, Hofstede model of cultural dimensions, management styles, recruitment strategies, HR policy
In this paper, I will be comparing two countries, which are the United States and Japan. I will be discussing all forms of similarities and differences. I chose those two countries because the large geographical distance and strong language barrier between them also plays a role in the extent of cultural differences. This report will give a great insight on the cultural differences within people's social lives, and how it impacts or shapes the business culture, from the relationship between leaders/managers with employees, organisational structure, and human resources practises and policies, not to forget the rewarding system of each country as well.
[...] References Liasis, (2018), Cultural Differences Between the USA and Japan, Owlcation, [online], Available at: https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/Cultural- Differences-Between-the-US-and-Japan, (Accessed: 25 April 2019) Hofstede insights, (2019), COUNTRY COMPARISON, [online], Available at: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/japan,the-usa/ (Accessed 25 April 2019) Gimbel, M. Kolko, J. (2018) 2018 US Labour Market Review and Outlook: When and How Will Good Times End?, Hiringlab, [online], Available at: https://www.hiringlab.org/2018/12/04/2018-labor-market-review-outlook/, (Accessed 25 April 2019) Bureau of labour statistics, (2019), News release, [online], Available at: https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf, (Accessed 25 April 2019) Japan Macro Advisors, (2019), Labour market, [online], Available at: https://www.japanmacroadvisors.com/page/category/economic-overviews/labor- market, (Accessed: 25 April 2019) World business culture, (2019), American management style, [online], Available at: https://www.worldbusinessculture.com/country-profiles/the- usa/culture/management-style/, (Accessed: 25 April 2019) World business culture, (2019), Japanese Business Management Style, [online], Available at: https://www.worldbusinessculture.com/country- profiles/japan/culture/business-management-style/, (Accessed: 25 April 2019) Paliwal, V. [...]
[...] Uncertainty avoidance The United States are fairly acceptant of new ideas and products, and have great willingness to trying new things. They show more tolerance in the opinions of others and give a significant importance to freedom of speech and self-expression, which is reflected in the corporate world, employees do express themselves and are not afraid of taking risks. Meanwhile, in Japan, is one of the countries that avoid uncertainty at all costs, which is rooted in the culture as a result of being constantly threatened by natural disasters, due to that, Japanese people have developed the habit of being constantly prepared, to the best of their ability. [...]
[...] (Paliwal, no date) In the United States, the government regulates the work policies, and unions do not exist employers have much more power over employees, and work isn't always guaranteed, in the United States it is ten times easier to fire a worker, than in other parts of the world, including Japan. Recruitment in Japan is very career-based, and companies tend to recruit newly graduate people, and offer them a lifetime employment within the organisation, employees are also provided with a continuous training in all departments of the company making them polyvalent, as well as off the job training, and seniority-based salary increase as well. [...]
[...] However, wages are decided according to the industry, the size of the business, and qualifications of the employee. Normally minimum wages in the US is 5.15 dollars per hour. (OECD, 2012) Moreover, for the rewards and benefits, organisation use many plans and programs: There is a formal recognition approach, such as ‘employee of the year, and the service recognition awards, in which many people are awarded publicly during an organisation organized event. Planned recognition: this approach is frequently used, in which the organisation acknowledges accomplishments and contributions, of either individuals or a team such as (employee of the month, safety awards, attendance awards, etc.). [...]
[...] Recruitment in the United States is neither career focused nor is it position based, it is conducted by direct application and passing interviews, although few positions are filled though centralised examination, and experienced people are preferred, as for retention, strong pay incentives are given. The training is given according to the need, and the requirements of the position. As for salaries, people are given their regular base salary, in addition to bonuses, as well as seniority affects the salary increase. [...]
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